Coronaviruses are a family of viruses known to contain strains that cause potentially fatal diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, they are typically spread via airborne droplets of liquid produced by infected individuals. Of the seven coronaviruses known to infect humans, four spread with seasonal regularity and cause everything from mild cold-like symptoms to flu-like symptoms. A few more notable strains, including SARS-CoV-2 (responsible for COVID-19) and those responsible for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), can be fatal in humans. The cause of death is complex, but is typically the result of heightened immune responses that cause damage to multiple systems in the body.
A safe and effective vaccine will provide individual protection against COVID-19. It will also provide greater protection for our loved ones and communities. You can choose whether or not to get vaccinated. Vaccination information is provided to help you decide if you have any concerns. Everyone receives two doses of the vaccine, but you have high protection from the first dose. You will be called back for the second dose within 12 weeks of the first dose. If you are vaccinated against COVID-19, you will be given an NHS Wales credit card sized vaccination card. This serves as a reminder for your second dose and also contains information on how to report any side effects.
If you have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immediate allergic reaction to any ingredient in the vaccine you are about to receive, you should not receive this vaccine. If you have been instructed not to receive one type of the COVID-19 vaccine, you can still get another type. Find out more information for people with allergies. You should get your second vaccination as close as possible to the recommended 3-week or 4-week interval. However, your second vaccination can be given up to 6 weeks (42 days) after the first dose if necessary. The disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus affects people all over the world. However, companies and research institutes are developing vaccines. Two vaccines have now been approved in the EU.
At least 246 vaccine projects against Covid-19 have been started since January 2020: The World Health Organization (WHO) currently has 235 (as of January 12, 2021). In addition, there are at least eleven other projects that she does not yet list. Until a few years ago, it would have taken 15 to 20 years from virus analysis to vaccine approval. New technologies and previous experience with vaccine projects against related viruses (see below) enable an enormous acceleration. Two vaccines are already approved and many others are currently being tested in volunteers, some of which are in the final phase III trials. While COVID-19 spreads disease, death, and disasters around the world, virtually no industry has been spared. Yet in the midst of the chaos of the global pandemic, there is an industry that not only survives, but also benefits generously.
First of all, it’s important to understand the difference between drugs and vaccines. Medicines are generally given to treat a medical problem, while vaccines are classically given to prevent a medical problem from occurring. Vaccines show the immune system a virus or bacteria (or even small parts of them) that are harmless. The body’s defenses recognize them as intruders and learn to fight them. By then, if the body is ever really exposed, it already knows how to fight the infection. The problem is making sure the vaccine gets to everyone who needs it. But in a pandemic, countries also have to compete with each other for drugs. For example, during the 2009 H1N1 flu (swine flu) pandemic, vaccine supplies were bought up by those countries who could afford them, while poorer countries ran out of supplies. Or, one could imagine a scenario in which India – a major supplier of vaccines to developing countries – does not unreasonably decide to first use its vaccine production to protect its own 1.3 billion population before exporting it. Hence, in the current scenario, there is an urgent need for drug development to get around a pandefight mie through treatment. Many traditional children’s vaccines require a first dose followed by a second dose called a booster dose a few weeks or, with some vaccines, years later. The booster dose strengthens the immunological memory.
Antibodies against corona:
When the coronavirus began to spread in China late last year, science teams around the world lined up along a starting line. They waited for the signal to start the race to manufacture a vaccine against COVID-19. That signal came on January 10th. At that time, scientists in China announced the complete genetic makeup of the new coronavirus. With this information in hand, many researchers began looking for a new vaccine. The race remains a head-to-head race, even as it gets closer and closer to the finish line. In May, data from a human study showed promising results. The immune responses they elicited in the treated subjects suggest that a vaccine that protects people from the killer virus may be within reach. The immune system recognizes that it is not a human protein. That gets the immune system into action quickly. It begins to make antibodies that attack the spike protein. It also trains a type of white blood cell called T cells to hunt down anything that contains this protein. That includes the coronavirus when it shows up.
Antibodies can block the ability of a virus to enter cells. The levels of these antibodies were as high as you can see in people given the Oxford vaccine. Should the vaccine prove successful, AstraZeneca and Oxford are committed to deliver 2 billion doses of the vaccine. Further clinical studies to test the effectiveness of the vaccine are already underway. In the UK, nearly 10,000 volunteers have received the vaccine. Another 5,000 people will be vaccinated in a study in Brazil. And in about a week, a US study of the vaccine will begin treating an additional 30,000 people.